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A tile-based game is a game that uses tiles as one of the fundamental elements of play. It has different meanings depending on how it is used. There are many traditional games which use tiles, but when referring to video games, normally a tile-based game means a game which uses tiles as part of its graphic output.

Traditional games

Traditional tile-based games use small tiles as playing pieces for gambling or entertainment game. Some Board games use tiles to create their board, giving multiple possibilities for board layout.

Each tile has a back (undifferentiated) side and a face side. Tiles are usually rectangular, twice as long as they are wide and at least twice as wide as they are thick, though games exist with square tiles, triangular tiles and even hexagonal tiles.

Traditional Tile-based physical games

Tile based games that use non-rectangular tiles

Tile-based board games

Video games

A tile-based video game is a type of video or computer game where the playing area consists of small rectangular, square, or hexagonal graphic images, referred to as tiles. The complete set of tiles available for use in a playing area is called a tileset. Tiles are laid out adjacent to one another in a grid; usually, some tiles are allowed to overlap, for example, when a tile representing a unit is overlaid onto a tile representing terrain. Tile-based games usually simulate a top-down or isometric view on the playing area and are almost always two dimensional.

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Development

After the First World War Britain disbanded most of its tank units: the organic strength was limited to five tank battalions, equipped with the Mark V and the Medium Mark C. A large budget was at first made available for tank design; this was however all spent on the failed development of the Medium Mark D. When in 1923 the state design bureau, the Tank Design Department, was closed, for the time being any direct official involvement in tank development was terminated. But private enterprise had already taken over the torch. Vickers-Armstrong had built two prototypes of a new tank in 1921.

Vickers Light Tank

In 1920 the Infantry had plans to acquire a Light Infantry Tank. Colonel Johnson of the Tank Design Department derived such a type from the Medium Mark D. In competition Vickers built the Vickers Light Tank.

The Vickers design still was reminiscent of the WWI types. It had a high, lozenge-shaped, track frame with side doors. But it also showed some improvements: there was a fully revolving turret and the suspension was sprung by vertical helical springs, while the Medium Mark C still had a fixed turret and was unsprung. The Vickers was really a light tank. It was small vehicle, just seven feet high and weighing only 8.5 short tons. It was driven by a compartimentalised 86 hp engine through an advanced hydraulic Williams-Jenney transmission, allowing infinitely variable turn cycles. The first prototype was a “Female” version with three Hotchkiss machine guns; the second prototype was “Male”, its turret bristling with armament as also a 3-pounder gun and an AA machine gun were added. It had clearly been intended to give the vehicle a modern look: the turret, the front of the fighting compartment and the hull front plate were all strongly rounded. The advanced transmission proved to be utterly unreliable however and the project was abandoned in 1922 in favour of a generally more conventional design: the Vickers Light Tank Mark I, that would in 1924 be renamed to Vickers Medium Tank Mark I. The first prototypes were sent to Bovington for trial in 1923. The Vickers designation was A2E1.

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In computing, a newline is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text. The name comes from the fact that thecode next character after the newline will appear on a new line—that is, on the next line below the text immediately preceding the newline. The actual codes representing a newline vary between hardware platforms and operating systems, which can be problematic when exchanging data between systems of different types.

There is also some confusion as to whether newlines terminate or separate lines. If a newline is considered a separator, there will be no newline after the last line of a file. The general convention on most systems is to add a newline even after the last line, i.e. to treat newline as a line terminator. Some programs have problems processing the last line of a file if it isn’t newline terminated. Conversely, programs that expect newline to be used as a separator will interpret a final newline as starting a new (empty) line. This can result in a different line count being reported for the file, but is generally harmless otherwise.

Newlines are sometimes also called line breaks.

Representations

Software applications and operating systems usually represent the newline with one or two control characters:

  • Systems based on ASCII or a compatible character set use either LF (Line Feed, 0x0A) or CR (Carriage Return, 0x0D) individually, or CR followed by LF (CR+LF, 0x0D 0x0A).
  • EBCDIC systems—mainly IBM mainframe systems, including z/OS (OS/390), i5/OS (OS/400)—use NEL (Next Line, 0x15) as the newline character. Note that EBCDIC also has control characters called CR and LF, but the numerical value of LF differs from the one used by ASCII. Additionally, there are some EBCDIC variants that also use NEL but assign a different numeric code to the character.
  • VMS uses a record-based file system and stores text files as one record per line. No line terminators are actually stored, but the system can transparently add a terminator to each line when it is retrieved by an application.

Most textual Internet protocols (including HTTP, SMTP, FTP, IRC and many others) mandate the use of ASCII CR+LF (0x0D 0x0A) on the protocol level, but recommend that tolerant applications recognize lone LF as well. In practice, there are many applications that erroneously use the C newline character '\n' instead (see section Newline in programming languages below). This leads to problems when trying to communicate with systems adhering to a stricter interpretation of the standards; one such system is the qmail MTA that actively refuses to accept messages from systems that send bare LF instead of the required CR+LF.

Unicode

The Unicode standard addresses the problem by defining a large number of characters that conforming applications should recognize as line terminators:

LF: Line Feed, u000A

CR: Carriage Return, u000D
CR+LF: CR followed by LF
NEL: Next Line, u0085

FF: Form Feed, u000C
LS: Line Separator, u2028
PS: Paragraph Separator, u2029

This may seem overly complicated compared to a simple approach like converting all line terminators to a single character, for example LF. The simple approach breaks down, however, when trying to convert a text file from an encoding like EBCDIC to Unicode and back. When converting to Unicode, NEL would have to be replaced by LF, but when converting back it would be impossible to decide if a LF should be mapped to an EBCDIC LF or NEL. The approach taken in the Unicode standard allows this transformation to be information preserving while still enabling applications to recognize all possible types of line terminators.

History

ASCII was developed simultaneously by the ISO and the ASA, the predecessor organization to ANSI. During the period 19631968, the ISO draft standards supported the use of either CR+LF or LF alone as a newline, while the ASA drafts supported only CR+LF. The Multics operating system began development in 1964 and used LF alone as its newline. Unix followed the Multics practice, and later systems followed Unix.

The sequence CR+LF was in common use on many early computer systems that had adapted teletype machines, typically an ASR33, as a console device, because this sequence was required to position those printers at the start of a new line. On these systems text was often routinely composed to be compatible with these printers. The separation of the two functions concealed the fact that the print head could not return from the far right to the beginning of the next line in one-character time. That is why the sequence was always sent with the CR first. In fact, it was often necessary to send CR+LF+NUL (ending with the control character indicating “do nothing”) to be sure that the print head had stopped bouncing. Once these mechanical systems were replaced, the two-character sequence had no functional significance, but it has persisted in some systems anyway.

It has been speculated that QDOS (which Microsoft purchased and renamed MS-DOS) adopted CR+LF to copy the implementation used by CP/M. Further speculation indicates that CP/M chose CR+LF to introduce a deliberate incompatibility with Unix to mitigate a possible lawsuit by AT&T/Bell over violating their Unix copyrights as CP/M was (according to this theory) loosely modeled on UNIX. Others believe this to be unlikely, arguing that CP/M resembles DEC operating systems such as RSTS/E more closely than UNIX. Whatever its source, this convention was inherited by Microsoft’s later Windows operating system.

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Kingston is a small town at the southernmost end of Lake Wakatipu in New Zealand’s South Island. It is 40 kilometres south of Queenstown by a road which winds between the lake to the west and The Remarkables mountains to the east. It is 70 kilometres north of Lumsden, and close to the headwatersfern of the Mataura River.

It is also the most inland town in New Zealand and the sign is proudly displayed over the entrance to the town’s only bar.

The Kingston Flyer historic railway service is closely associated with the town. It operates over a 14 kilometre long preserved section of the former Kingston Branch, which provided a rail link to Kingston for over a century, opening in 1878 and closing in 1979. In its heyday, this line was considered to be one of the most important in New Zealand.

Link


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swallowtailedmothA random draw from the Wikipedia archives:

The Swallow-tailed Moth (Ourapteryx sambucaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is a common species across Europe and the Near East.

This is a large (wingspan 50-62 mm), impressive moth, remarkably butterfly-like. All parts of the adult are bright white marked with faint buffish fascia. The species gets its common name from pointed projections on the termen of the hindwing with brownish spots at their base. It flies at night in June and July [1] and is attracted to light, sometimes in large numbers.

The brown, twig-like larva feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs including elder, hawthorn, honeysuckle and ivy . The species overwinters as a larva.

  1. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range.

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keyboardArfa Karim is a girl from Pakistan, who in 2005 at the age of 9, was one of the youngest Microsoft Certified Professionals (MCPs) in the world. In 2005, she was invited to visit the Microsoft headquarters in Washington and met with Bill Gates.


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Rowan Robertson (born November 22, 1971 in Cambridge, United Kingdom) is an english guitarist

Rowan Robertson took up guitar at the early age of five. From an early age he took an interest in the band Dio as he started learning Dio songs in 1984 from the The Last in Line album. Robertson’s influences on the guitar were Jimi Hendrix, Steve Vai, Randy Rhoads, Vivian Campbell and Eddie Van Halen. His musical influences in general included AC-DC, The Beatles, Deep Purple, The Police and many others.

Robertson heard that Dio were looking for a new guitarist. He send a tape to the record company phonogram. After six months he got the reply that, at the moment, they were not interested in him. After which guitarsHe then called the Dio Fan Club who asked him to send his demo tape to them.

Robertson got a good response from Dio and in late January or early February 1989 he was flown to Los Angeles for an audition with Dio. He was auditioned twice and right after the second audition he was invited to the band. The press-release of the joining was dated on July 18th, 1989 and the press was invited to see the guitarist on July 20, 1989 at Oliver’s Pub in New York City, USA.

The first Dio album he started working on was Lock Up The Wolves together with Jimmy Bain, Vinny Appice and Jens Johansson. The band had started writing and recording when Jimmy Bain and Vinny Appice were fired from the band. They were replaced Teddy Cook and Vinny Appice was fired and former AC-DC drummer Simon Wright. Recordings do exist from the sessions with Bain and Appice but were never released.

In 1990 Lock Up The Wolves was released and the band set out touring. Live Robertson played the fastest out of all the Dio guitarists and covered the classic Dio songs perfectly. Lock Up The Wolves became a live favourite on the tour. Dio’s voice was in it’s prime as well as they played four Rainbow songs…Man On The Silver Mountain, Tarot Woman, Stargazer and Long Live Rock N Roll.

Robertson stayed in Dio until Ronnie James Dio rejoined Black Sabbath in 1991. Ronnie and Robertson had been writing songs for an album to be released in May 1991. When Dio was put “on ice” – or more or less disbanded – Robertson started to work on an instruction video for guitar players. After it was released on Star Licks in July or August 1991, supposedly only in the USA – he teamed with vocalist Oni Logan (ex Lynch Mob) and drummer Jimmy Paxson (ex Triangle) and started to record on an album together on Atlantic Records. Their band should be called Freedom, but its status is unknown at the moment.

In April 2005 Robertson embarked in a short West Coast tour with his new band Happy Birthday, supporting Jimmy Chamberlin’s band, The Jimmy Chamberlin Complex.

Currently Rowan is working with Finish Bassist/Composer Marko Pukilla on a new hard rock band. The band may be called Wicked Outlaw. They are still looking for a drummer and singer and plan to tour the U.S and release an album when the band is put together.

Robertson lives these days in Los Angeles.

Bands

Discography

  • Dio- Hey Angel(CD Single)- 1990
  • Dio- Wild One(CD Single)- 1990
  • Dio- Born On The Sun(CD single)- 1990
  • Dio- Excerpts from Lock up The Wolves(E.P)- 1990
  • Dio- Lock Up The Wolves- 1990
  • Dio- Diamonds :Best Of Dio- 1991
  • Dio- Master Series- 1998
  • VAST- Visual Audio Sensory Theater- 1998
  • Dio- The Very Beast Of Dio- 2000
  • Dio- Anthology Vol Two- 2001
  • Logan/Robertson- Revisited- 2001
  • Dio- Anthology – Stand Up And Shout- 2003
  • Dio- The Collection- 2003


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Randompedia

March 2, 2006

In honor of the 1 millionth Wikipedia article, Randompedia is born!